Studies about Vegetable Oil cancer risk, and other health issues

Linoleic Acid the Main Fatty Acid in Vegetable Oils

📜 Increase in adipose tissue linoleic acid of US adults in the last half century

"Our results indicate that adipose tissue LA has increased by 136% over the last half century and that this increase is highly correlated with an increase in dietary LA intake over the same period of time."

Vegetable Oils Drive Heart Disease

📜 Omega-6 vegetable oils as a driver of coronary heart disease: the oxidized linoleic acid hypothesis

Vegetable Oils Increase Cancer Risk

📜 Israeli ‘cancer shift’ over heart disease mortality may be led by greater risk in women with high intake of n-6 fatty acids

Vegetable Oils Increase Insulin Resistance and Lead to Diabetes

📜 Are diets high in omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids unhealthy?

📜 Omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the early origins of obesity

Repeatedly Heated Vegetable Oils

e.g. deep fried food

📜 Impact of consumption of repeatedly heated cooking oils on the incidence of various cancers- A critical review

"RCO and its cooking fumes were found to enhance the incidence of aberrant cells, including breaks, fragments, exchanges and multiple chromosomal damages and micronuclei in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the large consumption of RCO has been associated with a number of malignancies, including lung, colorectal, breast, and prostate cancers."

📜 Heated vegetable oils and cardiovascular disease risk factors

"The practice of using repeatedly heated cooking oil is not uncommon as it will reduce the cost of food preparation. Thermal oxidation yields new functional groups which may be potentially hazardous to cardiovascular health."

📜 Chapter 10 - Heated Oil and Its Effect on Health

"Consumption of heated vegetable oil may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease via affecting serum lipid profiles, blood pressure, and promoting atherosclerosis. The use of repeatedly heated oil may cause hypertension, promote atherosclerosis, osteoporosis, and may affect liver and kidney structure and function."

Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids
Increase Chronic Inflammatory Disease Risk

📜 Health Implications of High Dietary Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

"Coinciding with this increase in the ratio of (n-6) : (n-3) PUFA are increases in chronic inflammatory diseases such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), cardiovascular disease, obesity, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), rheumatoid arthritis, and Alzheimer's disease (AD)."

📖 Recent Advances in Mitochondrial Medicine and Coenzyme Q10

"... and excess of omega-6-fatty acids, may damage cells in various organs, including pancreatic B-Cells, resulting in a further increase in insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus."

Vegetable Oil Causes Mitochondria Dysfunction

📜 Induction of mitochondrial nitrative damage and cardiac dysfunction by chronic provision of dietary omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids

🐁🐭 "Our study, for the first time, demonstrates that consumption of a high fat diet rich in omega-6 PUFA for only 4 weeks instigates mitochondrial nitrosative damage and causes cardiac dysfunction at high afterloads."

This study shows when rats eat a linoleic acid rich vegetable oil diet, markers of oxidized fat doubled and in the heart, the content of cardiolipin, what your mitochondria needs to properly produce energy, was reduced 5-fold.

What happened to these rats whose mitochondrial cardiolipin was reduced so much from eating vegetable oils? In just four weeks, these rats had heart failure.

📜 Brief episode of STZ-induced hyperglycemia produces cardiac abnormalities in rats fed a diet rich in n-6 PUFA

🐁🐭 "Thus, although promoted as being beneficial, excess n-6 PUFA, with its predisposition to induce obesity, insulin resistance, and ultimately diabetes, could accelerate myocardial abnormalities in diabetic patients."

Mitochondria Dysfunction Leads to Disease

📜 Mitochondria dysfunction in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease: recent advances

"... a large body of evidence suggests that damaged mitochondria likely play fundamental roles in the pathogenesis of AD (Alzheimer's disease). It is believed that a healthy pool of mitochondria not only supports neuronal activity by providing enough energy supply and other related mitochondrial functions to neurons, but also guards neurons by minimizing mitochondrial related oxidative damage."

📜 The Role of Mitochondria in Cardiovascular Diseases

"... mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) became a subject of intensive study, since many directly lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, deficient energy production and, as a result, cell dysfunction and death. Many mtDNA mutations were found to be associated with chronic human diseases, including cardiovascular disorders."

Linoleic Acid Oxidizes into 4-HNE

"4-Hydroxynonenal, or 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal or 4-HNE or HNE(C9H16O2), is an α,β-unsaturated hydroxyalkenal that is produced by lipid peroxidation in cells."

📜 4-Hydroxynonenal in the pathogenesis and progression of human diseases

"4-hydroxy 2-nonenal (HNE), a highly toxic and most abundant stable end product of lipid peroxidation, has been implicated in the tissue damage, dysfunction, injury associated with aging and other pathological states such as cancer, Alzheimer, diabetes, cardiovascular and inflammatory complications."

📜 Intake of ω-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid-Rich Vegetable Oils and Risk of Lifestyle Diseases

"Here, we describe the molecular implication of ω-6 PUFA-rich vegetable oil-derived hydroxynonenal in lysosomal destabilization leading to cell death. By oxidizing Hsp70.1, both the dietary PUFA- (exogenous) and the membrane phospholipid- (intrinsic) peroxidation product "hydroxynonenal," when combined, may play crucial roles in the occurrence of diverse lifestyle diseases including Alzheimer's disease."

Excess 4-HNE leads to Alzheimer’s Disease

📃 Vegetable Oil: The Real Culprit behind Alzheimer’s Disease

"Everybody may develop Alzheimer’s disease in response to accumulation of hydroxynonenal after long-term intake of “ω-6 vegetable oil”. This is a principal cause of the sporadic Alzheimer’s disease."

Canola Oil Leads to Increased Body Weight and Worsens Working Memory

📜 Effect of canola oil consumption on memory, synapse and neuropathology in the triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease

🐁🐭 "To this end mice received either regular chow or a chow diet supplemented with canola oil for 6 months. At this time point we found that chronic exposure to the canola-rich diet resulted in a significant increase in body weight and impairments in their working memory together with decrease levels of post-synaptic density protein-95, a marker of synaptic integrity, and an increase in the ratio of insoluble Aβ 42/40."

📰 Canola oil linked to worsened memory and learning ability in Alzheimer's

"Canola oil is one of the most widely consumed vegetable oils, yet little is known about its health effects. Now, a study links canola oil consumption in the diet with worsened memory, worsened learning ability and weight gain in mice which model Alzheimer's disease. It's the first study to suggest that canola oil is more harmful than healthful for the brain."

Interventional Trials

📜 Test of effect of lipid lowering by diet on cardiovascular risk. The Minnesota Coronary Survey

Replacing saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat decreased cholesterol levels in the control group but did not affect heart disease.

"The mean serum cholesterol level in the pre-admission period was 207 mg/dl, falling to 175 mg/dl in the treatment group and 203 mg/dl in the control group. For the entire study population, no differences between the treatment and control groups were observed for cardiovascular events, cardiovascular deaths, or total mortality."

📜 Re-evaluation of the traditional diet-heart hypothesis: analysis of recovered data from Minnesota Coronary Experiment (1968-73)

Replacing saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat decreased cholesterol levels in the control group but did not affect heart disease but data shows it increased risk of death.

"There was a 22% higher risk of death for each 30 mg/dL (0.78 mmol/L) reduction in serum cholesterol in covariate adjusted Cox regression models (hazard ratio 1.22, 95% confidence interval 1.14 to 1.32; P<0.001)."

📜 Controlled trial of a diet high in unsaturated fat for prevention of atherosclerotic complications

The people in the vegetable oil group were dying more. This was the case even though there were twice as many heavy smokers in the animal fat group. The interesting part is that this study was so long - 8 years. And it took many years to clearly see the negative effect of the vegetable oil diet.